Iron deficit is a common nutritional deficiency, even in developed countries, more prevalent in groups of population with higher dietary requirements of iron such as pregnant women, nursing mothers and children in periods of rapid growth. During early infancy, iron deficit and iron deficiency anemia are associated with lower cognitive development, memory and attention deficit, psychomotor retardation and behavioural problems. Despite treatment, these problems may persist into school-aged children and even into adolescence. In our environment, an iron- rich diet, using iron-fortified foods and milk in children, is recommended to help prevent this nutritional deficit. Treatment with iron supplementation is reserved for use in pregnancy and in under five-year-old children considered to be at high risk for iron deficiency.