Respiratory tract infections are the most common infectious process in clinical practice, particularly in primary health care. Widespread use of antibiotics is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistances which are a public health problem, especially in certain patient populations.
Antibiotic resistance in Europe increases according to a north-south pattern with major prevalence along Mediterranean countries, being Spain one of the most affected countries. In order to prevent, whenever possible, the development of antibiotic resistances, a conscientious prescription is required for its appropriate use. Being familiar with antibiotic resistance trends and its evolution over time is an essential element of decision-making regarding the use of antibiotics when trying to contain the increase of resistances. It also allows drawing up recommendations for empirical therapy, taking into account the most appropriate agent, dosage, route of administration and length of treatment.